Introduction

Even before the 1978 publication of the Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures, adverse impact analyses (alternatively known as disparate impact analyses) have been conducted by employers to evaluate passing rate differences between subgroups on various practices, procedures, and tests. Methods for conducting such analyses have typically included impact ratio tests that comparatively evaluate the success rates between two groups (e.g., the 80% Rule), statistical significance tests, and practical significance tests (Bobko & Roth, 2004). While these methods have remained consistent, the actual too