April 4, 2017, was Equal Pay Day. The Equal Pay Act, which requires that men and women get equal pay for equal work, was enacted in 1963, more than 50 years ago. Yet, women in the United States earn an average of 79 cents for every dollar earned by men. And the wage disparity is worse for women of color and Hispanic women.

Why?

To start, women need to understand how certain attitudes and behaviors may be hurting us.

Katty Kay and Claire Shipman, authors of The Confidence Code, found that women are less self-assured than men and that, to succeed in the workplace, confidence matters as much as competence. Digging deeper, they found that men, even if they have doubts about their ability to do a job, do not let their doubts stop them as often as women do.

How does lowered confidence play out at work? Kay and Shipman learned that women apply for promotions only when they meet 100 percent of the qualifications, while men apply when they meet 50 percent. This brings to mind the adage: “Fake it ‘til you make it.” I have also heard another take on t